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Algorithms and Measures

Vital Signs

Remote, continuous vital sign measures unlock new and deeper patient insights

Researchers Monitoring Vital Signs

Vital Signs

The ability to remotely collect continuous vital sign measures, such as heart rate, heart rate variability, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation, in conjunction with movement and sleep data provides clinical researchers with a 360-degree view of clinical trial participants during a study. This combination of patient-centered measures enables insights into how trial participants feel and function in their daily lives, not just during periodic site visits.

ActiGraph has partnered with CSEM, the Swiss technology innovation center, to deliver a suite of validated1 vital sign measures based on photoplethysmography (PPG) data, alongside our trusted accelerometry-based movement outcomes. By combining CSEM’s PPG expertise with ActiGraph’s industry-leading hardware technology and innovative DHT platform, clinical researchers have unprecedented access to a holistic view of study participants in the real-world, enabled by a single, fit-for-purpose wearable device.

Vital sign measures are for investigational use only

1. Validation References

F. Braun et al., “Influence of Measurement Location on Reflectance Pulse Oximetry in Sleep Apnea Patients: Wrist vs. Upper Arm,” presented at the EMBC 2021, Guadalajara, Mexico, Oct. 2021. doi: 10.1109/EMBC46164.2021.9630185

M. Proenca et al., “Performance Assessment of a Dedicated Reflectance Pulse Oximeter in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit,” in 2018 40th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), Honolulu, HI, USA, 2018, pp. 1502–1505. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2018.8512504

M. Lemay et al., "Wrist-Located Heart Rate Monitor Device Used for Atrial Fibrillation Screening: A Preliminary Study." In Computing in Cardiology Conference, 2016.

J. Van Zaen et al., "Atrial Fibrillation Detection from PPG Interbeat Intervals via a Recurrent Neural Network", in: CinC 2019, Singapore, 2019.

E. Genzoni et al., "Challenging the Limitations of Atrial Fibrillation Detection in the Presence of Other Cardiac Arrythmias", in: EMBC 2020, IEEE, Montréal, Canada, 2020.

L. Jeanningros et al., “Pulse Wave Analysis of Photoplethysmography Signals to Enhance Classification of Cardiac Arrhythmias,” In Computing in Cardiology Conference, 2022.

A. Tarniceriu et al., “Towards 24/7 continuous heart rate monitoring,” Proc. Annu. Int. Conf. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. EMBS, vol. 2016-Octob, pp. 186–189, 2016.

A. Tarniceriu et al., “Detection of beat-to-beat intervals from wrist photoplethysmography in patients with sinus rhythm and atrial fibrillation after surgery,” 2018 IEEE EMBS Int. Conf. Biomed. Heal. Informatics, BHI 2018, vol. 2018-Janua, pp. 133–136, 2018.

Ghamri Y, et al. Automated pulse oximeter waveform analysis to track changes in blood pressure during anesthesia induction: a proof-of-concept study. Anesth Analg, 130(5):1222-1233, 2020

Hofmann G, et al. A novel smartphone app for blood pressure measurement: a proof-of-concept study against an arterial catheter. J Clin Monit Comput, 37(1):249-259, 2023

E Rexhaj, et al, Evaluation of a cuffless watch-like sensor for 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, European Heart Journal, Volume 42, Issue Supplement_1, October 2021, ehab724.2348

Vischer AS, et al. Comparability of a blood pressure monitoring smartphone application with conventional measurements — a pilot study. Diagnostics, 12(3):749-764, 2022

Degott J, et al. Smartphone based blood pressure measurement: accuracy of the OptiBP mobile application according to the AAMI/ESH/ISO universal validation protocol. Blood Press Monit, 26(6):441-448, 2021

Proença M, et al. PPG-Based blood pressure monitoring by pulse wave analysis: calibration parameters are stable for three months, in IEEE EMBC 2019 Ann Int Conf, Berlin, Germany

F. Braun et al., “Pulse Oximetry at the Wrist During Sleep: Performance, Challenges and Perspectives,” in EMBC 2020, Montréal, Canada, Jul. 2020, pp. 5115–5118. doi: 10.1109/EMBC44109.2020.9176081

F. Braun et al., “Evaluation of a Novel Ear Pulse Oximeter: Towards Automated Oxygen Titration in Eyeglass Frames,” Sensors, vol. 20, no. 11, p. 3301, Jun. 2020, doi: 10.3390/s20113301.

F. Braun et al., “Towards Unobtrusive Detection and Monitoring of Sleep Disordered Breathing using Wearables: Validation of Watch-Based Measurement of Oxygen Saturation, Respiration and Heart Rate,” in DGSM 2020, Essen, DE, Oct. 2020, vol. 24, p. S26. doi:

F. Braun et al., “Multi-Parametric Vital Sign Estimation for Monitoring of Sleep Disordered Breathing,” presented at the SSP/SST - EFP Joint Annual Conference 2021, online only, Jun. 2021.

Commonly Used Vital Sign Measures

  •   Heart Rate
  •   Heart Rate Variability (HRV)
  •   Respiratory Rate (RR)
  •  A-Fib / Cardiac Rhythm
  •   Oxygen Saturation (SpO2)
  •   Blood Pressure (BP)

Measures Accelerometer PPG Wear Location Supported CentrePoint ActiLife
Heart Rate Wrist ActiGraph LEAP Q4 2024
Heart Rate Variability (HRV) Wrist ActiGraph LEAP Q4 2024
Respiratory Rate (RR) Wrist ActiGraph LEAP 2025
A-Fib / Cardiac Rhythm Wrist ActiGraph LEAP 2025
Oxygen Saturation (SpO2) Wrist, Upper Arm ActiGraph LEAP Q4 2024 2025
Blood Pressure (BP) Upper Arm ActiGraph LEAP Q4 2024 2025

1. Available in Q1, 2024
2. Available in Q2, 2024

Measures Accelerometer PPG
Heart Rate
Heart Rate Variability (HRV)
Respiratory Rate (RR)
Arrythmia Analysis
Oxygen Saturation (SpO2)
Blood Pressure (BP)

1. Available in Q1, 2024
2. Available in Q2, 2024

Measures Wear Location Supported
Heart Rate Wrist AG LEAP
Heart Rate Variability (HRV) Wrist AG LEAP
Respiratory Rate (RR) Wrist AG LEAP
Arrythmia Analysis Wrist AG LEAP
Oxygen Saturation (SpO2) Wrist, Upper Arm AG LEAP
Blood Pressure (BP) Upper Arm AG LEAP

1. Available in Q1, 2024
2. Available in Q2, 2024

Measures CentrePoint ActiLife
Heart Rate Q4 2024
Heart Rate Variability (HRV) Q1 2024 Q4 2024
Respiratory Rate (RR) Q1 2024 2025
Arrythmia Analysis Q2 2024 2025
Oxygen Saturation (SpO2) Q2 2024 2025
Blood Pressure (BP) Q2 2024 2025

1. Available in Q1, 2024
2. Available in Q2, 2024


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